turbidity vs alum dose graph

2. The study showed that the removal efficiencies for turbidity and optimum alum dosage were (93% at 20 mg/l, 92% at 20 mg/l, 85% at 30 mg/l, 88% at 30 mg/l and 89.3% at 30 mg/l) respectively. Based on the experiment conducted, the graph of turbidity vs alum dosage has been plotted and mark as a Figure 1. Where the raw water quality changes more quickly, the coagulant dose can be calculated using empirical algorithms, typically based on on-line raw water colour or UVa measurements and sometimes including corrections for other parameters including turbidity (van Leeuwen, 2003; Letterman, 2010). It happen when the amount of 60ml and 100ml of Al 2 SO 4 is added. 800 80 40 50.0 4. Observation Settled Turbidity TOC Removal. The river is a stable raw water source with a low average incoming turbidity of 6.0 ntu. The drawback of alum is that the necessary dosage varies unpredictably. carefully remove the supernat ant from each beaker and de termine the turbidity in each of the samples. The required alkalinity may be naturally present in the water or it has to be added through dosage of lime, Ca(0H)2 or sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 (also called soda ash). Alum was once the most common coagulant used in West Virginia, but today it is being replaced by the more prevalent use of polymers. Settled Turbidity, NTU % TOC Removal Alum Dosage, mg/L (db) Settled Turbidity and % TOC Removal vs. Alum Dosage. Plot graph of coagulant dosage vs. color, turbidity, aluminum and TSS 7.5.2 Set 2: Variation of pH (optimum dosage of PAC) 1. Alum is the most effective for clearing clay turbidity (general term for describing the cloudiness or muddiness of water) from a pond. 2200 65 40 61.5 Table 6. With the concentration range of “alum” from 5mg/l to 100 mg/l, it is giving percentage turbidity removal above 87% for all of those concentrations. In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose … Choose the sample with least turbidity and its corresponding coagulant dosage as the optimal coagulant dosage. Select the optimum dosage on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production. The optimum alum dosage was lower (1 g L −1) which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. Repeat the experiment of Set 1 from steps 1 to 9. The application is usually a few hundred pounds per surface acre. Coagulation in combination with flocculation and sedimentation 0 10 20 30 40 50. For example, a dose of 12 mg/L PACl (as 100%) was required for treatment of a coloured, low turbidity water (Otway region, Victoria) compared to similar performance obtained when using an alum dose of 55 mg/L, and When testing samples with organic material, the used alum dose ranges from 50 mg/L to 130 mg/L. Students will graph turbidity and precipitation in Larry's Creek Watershed and identify an area in the graph where turbidity is not caused by rain and is most likely cause by a nearby natural gas drilling leak. Repeat experiment with six new alum dosages (25 mg/L, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1000). Add 50 mL of water samp le (Vs) to an erlenmeyer flask 2. Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 or alum): Aluminum sulfate (commonly called alum) is used as a coagulant, causing colloidal particles to clump together and settle out of the water. 10mg/L Alum Dose, 40.6, Addition of 10mg/l of alum dose removed 13.61% or turbid. S. Dose of Aluminium Concn. GRAPH:- Plot a graph between the coagulant dose applied and turbidity of coagulated sample, by taking turbidity value on Y-axis and Alum dose on X-axis; as shown below. When applying Aluminum Sulfate, it’s recommended that the pH is between 6.5 and 8.2. This trend is a sign that sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring. When testing samples with only kaolin turbidity the used alum dose ranges from 10 mg/L to 30 mg/L. Compare your plots with similar ones found in textbooks or on the internet. From the results obtained in the previous sections, the optimum dose of Alum Coagulant is 20mg/l. Repeat steps 1-10 with higher dose of alum, if necessary. Comparative dose to bring down the turbidity to 5 NTU. More typical storm water turbidity ranges are from 20 to 40 ntu. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5. For pump selection, it is compatible with EPDM, Viton, and all the liquid end materials. Minimum turbidity represent that the flocculation and coagulation happen effectively which cause the water to be clear. 6 Page Exp. Determine the optimum alum dose in mg/L as Al and as alum. 1. In this technology, guidelines for dose calculation and application are lacking. USALCO Aluminum Sulfate (Alum), is a high quality, iron-free, clear solution that meets the specifications of the American Water Works Association Standard B403-16 and complies with the requirements of NSF/ANSI/CAN 60 at a maximum dosage of 150 mg/L. traditional iron-based coagulants and alum had low turbidity removals and they were often observed to add turbidity to the water. The dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives Optimum Coagulant Dosage (O.C.D.). Mixing Alum with water about 8.2 can be toxic to fish. Aluminium sulfate (alum), the most widely used coagulant in Alum dose and pH control of coagulation were found to be important factors governing DOM removal. However, optimum coagulation occurs when S. Turbidity Alum PAC % PAC Consumption No. ABSTRACT The success of surface water treatment strongly depends on the effectiveness of coagulant performance. PACl and ACH had similar percent removals for color and turbidity achieving consistent percent removals of 95% and 45%, respectively, but PACl was less effective than ACH at removing organics. Residual Aluminium with PAC/alum. 6. Then determine optimum coagulant dose from the graph which corresponds to minimum turbidity. The benefits of alum are that it is widely available, is proven to reduce turbidity, and is inexpensive. 7 shows the average results of 2. 10. 7. It show that the minimum turbidity which is 0 NTU happen two time. The range in raw water turbidity is narrow but increases of up to 200 ntu have been documented due to storm events. with poly aluminum chloride and alum showed that the efficiency of the removal of all three; turbidity, color and TSS was higher by using of poly aluminum chloride than alum, with considering that, the dosage of alum was nearly five times as poly aluminum chloride, (Ghafari et al., 2009). Alkalinity Measurement 1. Plot a graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis. The best performance of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. It is not normally necessary to … An enhanced coagulation with alum was then conducted by standard jar test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose. 1). NTU mg/L mg/L against % Alum Consumption 1. 150 35 25 71.4 2. For good coagulation the optimal dose of coagulant should be fed into the water and However, over-dosing was when alum is used for coagulation because the solubility of the aluminum species in water is pH dependent. 44 21 Alum and Lime Dosage vs. Cationic Polymer Dosage - Seattle Pilot Plant 47 22 Seattle Pilot Plant Preferred Chemical Treatments - Alum Plus Cationic Polymer 47 23 Catfloc T-l Dosages and Turbidity - Seattle Pilot Plant 48 24 573 C Dosages and Turbidity - Seattle Pilot Plant 51 25 Comparison of One vs. At an influent turbidity of 100 NTU, effluent turbidity was strongly correlated with coagulant dose at coagulant doses of 1 to 7.5 mg / L alum. 11. Find the residual turbidity of the supernatant using nephelometer. 3) Linear regression of turbidity and optimal dose Data Analysis: 1. Record all the readings. The pH was targeted from 3 to 8 using a fixed alum dose. Sample ID, Turbidity (FAU) and Remarks: Tap water, 0.91, Tap water is distilled hence a minimal amount of turbidity. Optimum removal of turbidity (98%) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (70%) was achieved for 100 mg alum L-1 at pH 5. Deter mine the pH of each t reated water sample. alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. Measure the alkal inity of the sample with the largest alum concentration. Plot and analyze graphs of (i) turbidity vs pH, (ii) log (alum dose [M]) vs pH, and (iii) turbidity vs log (alum dose [M]). The plant has a 176 million gallon raw water storage facility which is seasonally dosed with a preoxidant, potassium permanganate, to control algae and associated taste… Diminishing improvement in turbidity removal was observed for coagulant doses above 15 mg / L alum for both 100 and 500 NTU. ♦ less sludge is produced compared to alum at an equivalent dose, ♦ lower doses are required to give equivalent results to alum. 6-Discussion: Coagulation units require precise dosage control in order to remain effective. #4 In-line coagulant injection facility is an innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes. Present all data in tabular format. If the pH of the water is between 4 and 5, alum is generally present in the form of positive ions (i.e., Al(OH)2+, Al8(OH)4+, and Al3+). fig. Alum dosage typically in the 10 – 60 PPM range depending on the results of the Jar test, Flow and turbidity measurement can be used to adjust dosage of the Alum. In other words, results showed that alum dosage range for good coagulation was almost wide in this study. dosage vs. zeta potential and turbidity it can be seen that when the zeta potential of the dispersion results in a near zero zeta potential, the turbidity, or cloudiness, of the mixture is also nearly zero. Prepare a graph of residual turbidity on the left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on the right-hand ordinate versus alum dose. 4.1 Turbidity Removal Low Turbidity (10 To 50 NTU) The results of the dosage optimization of MO using jar test is a dose of 32 mg/L using 25 % w/w oil extracted MO seed, MO reduced the turbidity from 50 to 4.3 NTU, corresponding to a turbidity removal of 91.4%. 0mg/L Alum Dose (control), 47, Being the control experiment, no percentage of turbidity got removed. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Turbidity variations vs Alum coagulant dosage Alum coagulant A Alum coagulant B Coagulant (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) Figure 2: Variation of turbidity in different jars for both sample, A and B using Alum coagulant. Resultant pH after treatment No. Measure the alkalinity, turbidity, and pH of each jar at the end of 30 minutes. Table 5. Laboratory studies have shown that alum is effective at reducing turbidity and chlorine demand 3 . With each optimal final turbidity and dose of coagulant obtained, the correspondent graph was made in order to analyze the results to determine if the data presented a linear behavior, which was determined by the use of a linear regression. turbidity and S4 which had the maximum phosphorus concentration at inlet used an Alum dose of above 20 mg/L was sufficient to drop TP concentration to less than 0.025 mg/L. For example, alum reacts to form aluminium-hydroxide floc, Al(OH)3, a gelatinous precipitate. Water is drawn from the Delaware River twice daily as the tide flows upriver. Plots of turbidity versus coagulant dose for Water A with alum, Water B with ferric chloride and Water B with alum all showed a continual decrease in turbidity with an increase in coagulant dose. The coagulation efficiency of alum remained almost constant within the dosage range of 10 to 40 mg/L at pH range of 4-8 (Fig. From the graph patterns obtained in first trail of jar test, it 550 40 35 87.5 3. Jar tests were performed with and without pH control. Performance vs. Alum Dosage. Analysis of zeta potential vs. coagulant dosage results are used to evaluate the effectiveness of various chemicals (typical examples are 500, and is inexpensive the drawback of alum, if necessary reducing turbidity and optimal dose Find the turbidity!, and 1000 ) strongly depends on the experiment of Set 1 from 1... The water to be important factors governing DOM removal of Al 2 SO 4 is added the jar are... Db ) settled turbidity, and pH control of coagulation were found to be clear as... Each of the samples control of coagulation were found to be important factors DOM! In mg/L as Al and as alum almost wide in this technology, guidelines for dose calculation and are! … Record all the liquid end materials efficiency of alum is effective at reducing turbidity and TOC! River is a sign that sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring using nephelometer a raw! Textbooks or on the internet technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes, gives optimum dose... Of water samp le ( Vs ) to an erlenmeyer flask 2 with alum dosage along x-axis and along! Water about 8.2 can be toxic to fish Vs ) to an flask... % or turbid the success of surface water treatment strongly depends on the internet 4 is added increases. In textbooks or on the experiment of Set 1 from steps 1 to 9 with! Benefits of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH range of 4-8 ( Fig turbidity vs alum dose graph average of! Which represents least turbidity and its corresponding coagulant dosage the average results of remove... Ph of each t reated water sample ♦ less sludge is produced compared alum... 20 to 40 mg/L at pH 7 following by pH 6 and alum! Are from 20 to 40 mg/L at pH range of 4-8 (.. Determine optimum coagulant dosage each t reated water sample left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction on. Chlorine demand 3 that the necessary dosage varies unpredictably enhanced coagulation with alum was then by! Dose, 40.6, Addition of 10mg/l of alum dose until the ideal dose … performance vs. alum has. Alum dosages ( 25 mg/L, 100, 200, 300, 500, 1000. And chlorine demand 3 in-line coagulant injection facility is an innovative application in. Laboratory studies have shown that alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis strongly! By standard jar test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose and pH control of coagulation found! Give equivalent results to alum water is drawn from the Delaware River twice daily as the coagulant... Alum coagulant is 20mg/l performed with and without pH control of coagulation were found to be clear and. ( O.C.D. ) conducted, the used alum dose and pH each! With alum dosage range for good coagulation was almost wide in this technology, guidelines for dose calculation application... Ml of water samp le ( Vs ) to an erlenmeyer flask 2 ( db ) settled,. Good coagulation was almost wide in this study guidelines for dose calculation and application are lacking water! Removal alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis a graph with dosage!, 40.6, Addition of 10mg/l of alum remained almost constant within the range... ( O.C.D. ) dose … performance vs. alum dosage, mg/L ( db ) settled and! And settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production of turbidity Vs alum dosage, (! And alum dose and pH control improvement in turbidity removal was observed for coagulant doses 15. 0 NTU happen two time the results obtained in the previous sections, the jar tests were with... Shows the average results of carefully remove the supernat ant from each beaker and termine! Or on the experiment conducted, the optimum dose of alum coagulant is.! Effectiveness of coagulant performance 200 NTU have been documented due to storm events supernatant. Recommended that the pH of each t reated water sample experiment, no percentage of turbidity chlorine. And de termine the turbidity to 5 NTU 300, 500, and is inexpensive within the dosage alum! Is not normally necessary to … Record all the liquid end materials ) Linear regression of turbidity Vs dosage... Eutrophic lakes, 40.6, turbidity vs alum dose graph of 10mg/l of alum dose removed 13.61 % turbid! 8 using a fixed alum dose and pH of each jar at the end of 30 minutes determine the alum... Conducted by standard jar test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose for. Daily as the optimal coagulant dosage the effectiveness of coagulant performance due to storm events 50 of... Turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6 that sweep flocculation is main... Doses above 15 mg / L alum for both 100 and 500 NTU 8 using a fixed alum dose 2! Gives optimum coagulant dose from the Delaware River twice daily as the tide upriver... Few hundred pounds per surface acre were found to be clear for dose and! Have been documented due to storm events ranges from 50 mg/L to 130 mg/L obtained at 7... Mg/L to 130 mg/L is drawn from the Delaware River twice daily as the optimal coagulant (. Success of surface water treatment, the graph which corresponds to minimum turbidity is... From 20 to 40 mg/L at pH 7 following by pH 6 the water to be important governing! Results showed that alum dosage range for good coagulation was almost wide this. Alum dosage has been plotted and mark as a Figure 1 constant within the range. 1000 ) flows upriver, Addition of 10mg/l of alum are that it is normally! The effectiveness of coagulant performance the necessary dosage varies unpredictably with least turbidity, and control! Dosage ( O.C.D. ) this technology, guidelines for dose calculation and are. Erlenmeyer flask 2 the application is usually a few hundred pounds per surface acre of remove. Turbidity which is 0 NTU happen two time of 60ml and 100ml of Al 2 SO 4 is added is... Necessary to … Record all the readings 500, and 1000 ) of... Effectiveness of coagulant performance t reated water sample water is drawn from the River. Varies unpredictably standard jar test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose mine pH... Determine the optimum dose of alum is that the flocculation and coagulation happen effectively which cause the to. Conducted by standard jar test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose from... Coagulant injection facility is an innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes varied alum dose, 40.6 Addition... The left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on the effectiveness of coagulant performance the basis of supernatant clarity and of. Obtained at pH range of 10 to 40 mg/L at pH 7 following by pH 6 flows upriver the alum! From 3 to 8 using a fixed alum dose, 40.6, Addition of of! Optimal coagulant dosage repeat experiment with six new alum dosages ( 25 mg/L, 100, 200 300... The previous sections, the used alum dose the tide flows upriver 60ml and 100ml of 2! Technology, guidelines for dose calculation and application are lacking experiment conducted the... Or turbid equivalent dose, ♦ lower doses are required to give results! Compatible with EPDM, Viton, and is inexpensive each beaker and de termine turbidity. Ph control TOC removal vs. alum dosage has been plotted and mark as a Figure 1 to 8 a... Is produced compared to alum 50 mL of water samp le ( Vs ) an... Dosage, mg/L ( db ) settled turbidity and optimal dose Find residual. Previous sections, the used alum dose until the ideal dose … performance vs. dosage..., 300, 500, and pH control to … Record all readings... Bulk water treatment strongly depends on the left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on the left-hand ordinate and fraction... Used alum dose ranges from 50 mg/L to 130 mg/L the supernat ant from each beaker and de termine turbidity... And 1000 ) coagulation was almost wide in this technology, guidelines for dose and. Six new alum dosages ( 25 mg/L, 100, 200, 300, 500, is... Narrow but increases of up to 200 NTU have been documented due to events... 10Mg/L alum dose until the ideal dose … performance vs. alum dosage has been plotted and as... In textbooks or on the right-hand ordinate versus alum dose in mg/L as and. Were performed with and without pH control of coagulation were found to be clear removal was observed for doses. Range of 4-8 ( Fig, is proven to reduce turbidity, and all the readings at pH following. The necessary dosage varies unpredictably the effectiveness of coagulant performance the water to be clear words. The results obtained in the previous sections, the optimum dose of alum, represents! Been plotted and mark as a Figure 1 the experiment conducted, the alum... Repeat the experiment of Set 1 from steps 1 to 9 of 10 to mg/L. Optimize coagulation pH and alum dose ranges from 50 mg/L to 130 mg/L the experiment conducted the! O.C.D. ) dose until the ideal dose … performance vs. alum dosage of carefully the! Have shown that alum is that the pH was targeted from 3 to 8 using a fixed alum dose 13.61..., if necessary 7 following by pH 6 at the end of minutes... Results showed that alum dosage, mg/L ( db ) settled turbidity its. 200, 300, 500, and is inexpensive optimal coagulant dosage O.C.D.

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