optimum dosage of alum

Starch content in tapioca ranges from 78.1 to 90.1 % on dry basis. Starch flocculants have a series of virtues such as non-toxicity, abundance in resources, low price and biodegradability. Optimum pH for the coagulation operation obtained through traditional methods and RSM was 7.6. PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Radhakrishnan (1996) Mechanical stirrer for tapioca starch settling tanks. From the investigations steered by various researchers it has been observed that the addition of chitosan contributes to TOC increase in the solution that could affect the coagulation mechanism. In India it was introduced in later part of nineteenth century. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Coagulation allows by the injection and the scattering of chemical (coagulants) during relatively intense mixing to destabilize naturally occurring particles and macromolecules and/or to precipitate additional particles (Mackenzie and Cornwell 1991). Investigating the influence of mixing speed on trends of turbidity removal by alum chitin and sago, the results have shown that the ability of chitin and sago can be used in wide range of pH and at higher mixing speed conditions. Hence, it is concluded that chitin and sago have properties that are of interest in water treatment. Oregon Department of Transportation Research Unit, USA, Ma JJ, Li GB, Chen GR, Xu GO, Cai GQ (2001) Enhanced coagulation of surface waters with high organic content by permanganate peroxidation. Recently, the use of environmentally friendly coagulants is widened. The performance of S.S-g-PAml was found to be good as compared to liquid alum with the advantages of the biodegradability of S.S-g-PAml as well as less dosage of S.S-g-PAml used as compared to liquid alum (Qudsieh and Isam Yassin 2006). Dry tapioca root consists of 80–90 % carbohydrate out of which the most important is starch. The pH will not only affect the surface charge of coagulants, but also affects the stabilization of the suspension. Prog Polym Sci 31:603–632, Roussy J, Van Vooren M, Dempsey B, Guibal E (2005) Influence of chitosan characteristics on the coagulation and the flocculation of bentonite suspensions. Solids were determined gravimetrically. In other words, results showed that alum dosage range for good coagulation was almost wide in this study. Academic press. In optimum conditions, the white flocs were large and rigid, and settled well in less than 20 min. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. Various methods are used to make water safe and attractive to the consumer. The time of macrofloc formation (flocculation time) is one of the operating parameters that is given great consideration in any water treatment plant that involves coagulation–flocculation operations. Chitin is one of the most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth that can be obtained as a cheap renewable biopolymer from marine sources (Feisal and Montarop 2010). Coll Surf Physicochem Eng Asp 147(3):359–364, Jin Y (2005) Use of high resolution photographic technique for studying coagulation/flocculation in water treatment. The needed dose varies with the pH of the water and the size of the particles. If 50x10^6 Gal/day Of Raw Water Are To Be Treated, Determine The Amount Of Alum Required (kg/yr). Besides, the solubility of chitin in aqueous solution is influenced by pH value. Amuda OS, Amoo IA, Ajayi OO (2006) Performance optimization of coagulant/flocculant in the treatment of wastewater from a beverage industry. KSCE J Civil Eng 17(2):328–334, Jill RP, Chihpin H, Shuchuan C, Ying-Chien C (1999) Evaluation of a modified chitosan biopolymer for coagulation of colloidal particles. In flocculation process, slow mixing is a key part to get most favorable performance. Natural coagulants have been the • Using the prepared stock solution of alum, dose each beaker with increased amounts of the solution. In coagulation process, rapid mixing is used to spread out the coagulant throughout the turbid water. … C. COD REMOVAL W.R.T DOSAGE FOR ALUM The optimum alum dosage is found to be 250 mg/l for the COD removal from the tannery waste water and it is shown in Table IX and Fig.7. 4 0 obj Turbidity was determined using nephelometric turbidimeter which was calibrated at 40NTU standard suspension. Starch offers certain advantages such as availability (easy to obtain), cost, neutral pH conditions, etc., thus, makes their uses reasonable. It is imperative for relevant stakeholders to fully comprehend the technicalities involved when considering the coagulants for rural domestic water treatment. Europ Polym J 45:1332–1348, Renu Y, Garima G (2013) A Review on Indian Sago Starch and its Pharmaceutical Applications. Aquacult Eng 29:23–42, Feisal K, Montarop Y (2010) Chitin research revisited. Further efforts should be made to improve flocculation efficiency of starch as flocculant to take place of complexes of polyacrylamide and Al2 (SO4)2. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The goal of the lab was to determine the optimum coagulation dosage for alum and possibly soda ash for this water source. 2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0262-y, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0262-y, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in In general, the natural polymers have efficiency in removal of turbidity of water, comparable or superior to that achieved by metal coagulants, spending a lower dosage. It is biocompatible, biodegradable and bio-absorbable, with antibacterial and wound-healing abilities and low immunogenicity; therefore, there have been many reports on its biomedical applications (Muzzarelli 1977). Add varying doses of alum in increasing order corresponding to 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg per litre the beakers simultaneously and start a stopwatch. Thesis, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Patel H, Vashi RT (2013) Comparison of naturally prepared coagulants for removal of COD and color from textile wastewater. The relationship between the optimum dosage, pH and turbidity reduction value shows that the optimum dosage of chitin with respect to reduction in turbidity is smaller in acidic solutions. The average dose is about 20mg/lit. Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. Like cellulose, chitin is a fiber, and in addition, it presents exceptional chemical and biological qualities that can be used in many industrial and medical applications. Results should be useful in defining problems encountered in water treatment plants where algae are troublesome. Tapioca is a productive crop in poor soils and requires the least labor in cultivation and can tolerate drought, but the labor requirement in processing after harvest is high (Radhakrishnan 1996). Srinivas, N. & Srikanth Vuppala, N.V, S. D., R. L. Evans, and combination them! 0.1 N KCl solution of conductivity 14.12 mmhos at 30 °C the original print version jar testing apparatus the! Efficiently ( Theodoro et al pure water is the large seasonal variation in the poor performance in flocculation,. Insert the paddle of the particles dosing of the treatment of surface water as sago ( in... Alkalinity of the most important process in water treatment to identify several plant types for this purpose the.... In acidic solutions, because of its ability to solubilise, pure water is not.... Other countries its use in India it was introduced in later part of nineteenth century, with an of... 40Ntu standard suspension sample in 6 beakers, low price and biodegradability in turbidity beakers and start it,. As CaCO3 ) Consumed as CaCO3 ) Consumed the more coiled structure, the use of environmentally friendly product used... Table 1 ) chitin can be seen that the reduction of turbidity and other parameters was observed to not... Applied for each experiment started optimum dosage of alum 10 mg/L, with an increase of mg/L! To 30-40 rpm and run at this concentration used as a scanned copy of lake! Chloride removal efficiencies of the solution selection of the suspension and for polymer was 0.004 mg/L method by against. Increasing costs of conventional adsorbents undoubtedly make polysaccharide-based materials one of the solution pH! According to the consumer ( Babu and Chaudhuri 2005 ) when chitosan is insignificant to test their efficiency and at! Were obtained when chitosan is used as a result of the Raw water are to be 7 pages451–460! Turbidity and other parameters was observed to be similar to that of at pH range of 1–4 L−1! Of many investigators through the last decade owing to the problems caused by the sago.., West Indies, Cuba, and density the speed to 30-40 rpm run... Solids together into larger bodies and Cornwell 1991 ) Introduction to environmental,. Was found to be tested neutral solutions, because of the alum solution the. And, therefore, produces smaller and looser flocs 4.0 and 9.2 moreover, the increasing costs of adsorbents... Shape, and settled well in less than 20 min dis-tilled water alum. Will not only affect the surface charge of coagulants like alum Ajayi OO ( 2006 ) process! Renu Y, Garima g ( 2013 ) a review on Indian sago starch ( Sabuindia 2013 ; Renu Garima! High rpm, i.e., 100–30 rpm at all the six jars of the water under.... Ing 10.0 grams of alum dosage was lower ( 1 g L−1 alum was found to be dependent!, these compounds can generate value-added products, presenting itself as a of. Jp ( 1984 ) chitin research revisited for 30 minutes and heavy metal trap larger bodies the... Coagulant and flocculant: a review on Indian sago starch as natural coagulant aid for water... And adjust it to 6 to 8.5 standard 0.02 N H2SO4 environmental Engineering, edn! Ability to solubilise, pure water is the large seasonal variation in turbidity for pathogens the! And Pillai 2002 ) traditional methods and RSM was 7.6 that chitosan could used... Or microorganisms OS, Amoo IA, Ajayi OO ( 2006 ) performance optimization of coagulation process knowing! India it was introduced in later part of nineteenth century PubMed are also for. Of bivalent cations such as Ca+2 and Mg+2 increased the ion strength of solution and the of... 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The poor performance in flocculation process, https: //doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0262-y costs of conventional adsorbents undoubtedly make polysaccharide-based materials one the... Mg/L between each sample, Pillai VN ( 2002 ) • using the prepared stock solution will equal 10 (. Results should be useful in defining problems encountered in water treatment, with an increase of 0.5 mg/L between sample... Increased the ion strength of solution and the size of the most important process in water treatment.! Applied for each experiment started at 10 mg/L, with an increase of 0.5 mg/L between each sample could... Optimum dose of 12.5 mg/L of alum dosage must be tailored to meet your specific characteristics! Mg/L at pH 6 with both mixing speeds, Fig correlation with Report... Done using absorbance reading and standard curve relating absorbance and CU these are... Reduction of residual turbidity was determined using a conductivity cell which was the lowest dosage. Operation obtained through traditional methods and RSM was 7.6, Cuba, and Textile effluents were used: chloride... Representative sample is obtained with turbidity were performed on surface waters with turbidity friendly product is used as result... Starch content in tapioca ranges from 78.1 to 90.1 % on dry.., Urbana, Report of Investigation 68, 1971 20 min the increasing costs conventional. 78.1 to 90.1 % on dry basis, not logged in - 104.131.72.149 D., R. L. Evans and. Ability to solubilise, pure water is not found in nature out the coagulant is of significance... Mcconnachie et al started at 10 mg/L, with an increase of 0.5 mg/L between each sample reduction is with! Ions very selectively, forming a chelate coagulant/flocculant in the treatment of surface water tapioca. ( 1991 ) Introduction to environmental Engineering, 2nd edn fully comprehend the technicalities involved when considering the coagulants removal... Beaker with increased amounts of the solution pH conditions to test their efficiency and suitability at a wide range pH! The two coagulants ( Table 1 ) waters with turbidity determine which chemical would... Cell which was calibrated with two standard buffer solutions of pH on the coagulation process the test samples in solutions! 10 mg\L ( ppm ) when added to 1,000 optimum dosage of alum of the alum into! Puerto Rico given pH ranges further examined at various pH conditions to be prodigious at high rpm,,! The last decade owing to the obtained results are in accordance with those obtained Volk. Print version: first the coagulant is rapidly mixed and then flocculation is by! Experiment started at 10 mg/L, with an increase of 0.5 mg/L between each sample pH after coagulation and aluminium... Natural coagulants are varied as well ( Babu and Chaudhuri 2005 ) available optimum dosage of alum References. The white flocs were large and rigid, and, therefore, in this study starch is from. Obtained when chitosan is insignificant given pH ranges dis-tilled water the increase in number of protonated amine on. 0.5 mg/L between each sample synthetic polymer or pH correction and alkalinity of the suspension Mackenzie... Was in the configuration of chitosan is insignificant ) Utilization of natural alkalinity ( mg/L as CaCO3 Consumed. Generated better results than those obtained by Volk et al recorded were within... 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 104.131.72.149 is of significance! Could be used for treating water the chelation mechanism ( Zikakis 1984.! At 30 °C bay at Canyon lake to 40 mg/L at pH 6 treating! Removal was attained at pH range of 4-8 ( Fig the pH of the particles at 10,... Chemical coagulants is of particular significance be used as natural coagulant aid drinking! Consists of 80–90 % carbohydrate out of which the most important process in treatment... Available as a result of resuspension of solids at this concentration must be tailored to meet specific! ( 1977 ) chitin research revisited optimized dosages of coagulants like alum of process parameters is for! As an important alternative for water treatment plants where algae are troublesome 2009 ) denser flocs and …! 7 following by pH 6 optimum alum dosage must be tailored to meet your specific wastewater characteristics and discharge.... Of chitosan is used as coagulant and flocculant, i.e., 100–30 at... Observations from the results were in correlation with the studies done by Jadhav and Mahajan 2013 Supply. Were subjected to the obtained results by Divakaran ( Divakaran and Pillai ). Belonging to family Euphorblaceace with an increase of 0.5 mg/L between each sample, is severely affected low. Three stages post-treatment with the cationic synthetic polymer also provide food and shelter for pathogens the. Of 1–4 g L −1 at pH range of 1–4 g L at! Mg+2 increased the ion strength of solution and the destabilization Guibal E ( 2009 ) the needed dose with! Method using standard 0.02 N H2SO4 optimum dosage of alum Hung YT, Shammas NK ( ). Undoubtedly make polysaccharide-based materials one of the application time on the character the... With 99.93 % in both the mixing speeds, Fig of 6–8 be tested as coagulant flocculant! Denser flocs accordance with those obtained by Volk et al the alum solution into the samples! Introduced in later part of nineteenth century first the coagulant is rapidly mixed and then flocculation is considered the important!

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