Starch content in tapioca ranges from 78.1 to 90.1 % on dry basis. Starch flocculants have a series of virtues such as non-toxicity, abundance in resources, low price and biodegradability. Optimum pH for the coagulation operation obtained through traditional methods and RSM was 7.6. PhD thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Radhakrishnan (1996) Mechanical stirrer for tapioca starch settling tanks. From the investigations steered by various researchers it has been observed that the addition of chitosan contributes to TOC increase in the solution that could affect the coagulation mechanism. In India it was introduced in later part of nineteenth century. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Coagulation allows by the injection and the scattering of chemical (coagulants) during relatively intense mixing to destabilize naturally occurring particles and macromolecules and/or to precipitate additional particles (Mackenzie and Cornwell 1991). Investigating the influence of mixing speed on trends of turbidity removal by alum chitin and sago, the results have shown that the ability of chitin and sago can be used in wide range of pH and at higher mixing speed conditions. Hence, it is concluded that chitin and sago have properties that are of interest in water treatment. Oregon Department of Transportation Research Unit, USA, Ma JJ, Li GB, Chen GR, Xu GO, Cai GQ (2001) Enhanced coagulation of surface waters with high organic content by permanganate peroxidation. Recently, the use of environmentally friendly coagulants is widened. The performance of S.S-g-PAml was found to be good as compared to liquid alum with the advantages of the biodegradability of S.S-g-PAml as well as less dosage of S.S-g-PAml used as compared to liquid alum (Qudsieh and Isam Yassin 2006). Dry tapioca root consists of 80–90 % carbohydrate out of which the most important is starch. The pH will not only affect the surface charge of coagulants, but also affects the stabilization of the suspension. Prog Polym Sci 31:603–632, Roussy J, Van Vooren M, Dempsey B, Guibal E (2005) Influence of chitosan characteristics on the coagulation and the flocculation of bentonite suspensions. Solids were determined gravimetrically. In other words, results showed that alum dosage range for good coagulation was almost wide in this study. Academic press. In optimum conditions, the white flocs were large and rigid, and settled well in less than 20 min. Find the pH of the sample and adjust it to 6 to 8.5. Various methods are used to make water safe and attractive to the consumer. The time of macrofloc formation (flocculation time) is one of the operating parameters that is given great consideration in any water treatment plant that involves coagulation–flocculation operations. Chitin is one of the most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth that can be obtained as a cheap renewable biopolymer from marine sources (Feisal and Montarop 2010). Coll Surf Physicochem Eng Asp 147(3):359–364, Jin Y (2005) Use of high resolution photographic technique for studying coagulation/flocculation in water treatment. The needed dose varies with the pH of the water and the size of the particles. If 50x10^6 Gal/day Of Raw Water Are To Be Treated, Determine The Amount Of Alum Required (kg/yr). Besides, the solubility of chitin in aqueous solution is influenced by pH value. Amuda OS, Amoo IA, Ajayi OO (2006) Performance optimization of coagulant/flocculant in the treatment of wastewater from a beverage industry. KSCE J Civil Eng 17(2):328–334, Jill RP, Chihpin H, Shuchuan C, Ying-Chien C (1999) Evaluation of a modified chitosan biopolymer for coagulation of colloidal particles. In flocculation process, slow mixing is a key part to get most favorable performance. Natural coagulants have been the • Using the prepared stock solution of alum, dose each beaker with increased amounts of the solution. In coagulation process, rapid mixing is used to spread out the coagulant throughout the turbid water. … C. COD REMOVAL W.R.T DOSAGE FOR ALUM The optimum alum dosage is found to be 250 mg/l for the COD removal from the tannery waste water and it is shown in Table IX and Fig.7. 4 0 obj Turbidity was determined using nephelometric turbidimeter which was calibrated at 40NTU standard suspension. Starch offers certain advantages such as availability (easy to obtain), cost, neutral pH conditions, etc., thus, makes their uses reasonable. It is imperative for relevant stakeholders to fully comprehend the technicalities involved when considering the coagulants for rural domestic water treatment. Europ Polym J 45:1332–1348, Renu Y, Garima G (2013) A Review on Indian Sago Starch and its Pharmaceutical Applications. Aquacult Eng 29:23–42, Feisal K, Montarop Y (2010) Chitin research revisited. Further efforts should be made to improve flocculation efficiency of starch as flocculant to take place of complexes of polyacrylamide and Al2 (SO4)2. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The goal of the lab was to determine the optimum coagulation dosage for alum and possibly soda ash for this water source. 2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0262-y, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0262-y, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in In general, the natural polymers have efficiency in removal of turbidity of water, comparable or superior to that achieved by metal coagulants, spending a lower dosage. It is biocompatible, biodegradable and bio-absorbable, with antibacterial and wound-healing abilities and low immunogenicity; therefore, there have been many reports on its biomedical applications (Muzzarelli 1977). Add varying doses of alum in increasing order corresponding to 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mg per litre the beakers simultaneously and start a stopwatch. Thesis, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Patel H, Vashi RT (2013) Comparison of naturally prepared coagulants for removal of COD and color from textile wastewater. The relationship between the optimum dosage, pH and turbidity reduction value shows that the optimum dosage of chitin with respect to reduction in turbidity is smaller in acidic solutions. The average dose is about 20mg/lit. Now insert the paddle of the jar testing apparatus inside the beakers and start it. Like cellulose, chitin is a fiber, and in addition, it presents exceptional chemical and biological qualities that can be used in many industrial and medical applications. Results should be useful in defining problems encountered in water treatment plants where algae are troublesome. Tapioca is a productive crop in poor soils and requires the least labor in cultivation and can tolerate drought, but the labor requirement in processing after harvest is high (Radhakrishnan 1996). Srinivas, N. & Srikanth Vuppala, N.V, S. D., R. L. Evans, and combination them! 0.1 N KCl solution of conductivity 14.12 mmhos at 30 °C the original print version jar testing apparatus the! Efficiently ( Theodoro et al pure water is the large seasonal variation in the poor performance in flocculation,. Insert the paddle of the particles dosing of the treatment of surface water as sago ( in... Alkalinity of the most important process in water treatment to identify several plant types for this purpose the.... 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